Monitoring Containers

Use mackerel-container-agent to monitor containers on container orchestration platforms such as Amazon ECS and Kubernetes.

Features

mackerel-container-agent has the following features.

  • A monitoring agent dedicated for container orchestration platforms
  • Provided in Docker image
  • Monitors tasks (ECS) and Pods (Kubernetes)
  • Runs as a task/Pod sidecar
  • Tasks / Pods can be treated as hosts, services and roles can be assigned
  • Automatically retires when the agent finishes

The following items are not supported to monitoring with mackerel-container-agent.

  • Monitoring of the container host
    • container host CPU, memory, network, etc.
  • Monitoring of the container orchestration platform itself
    • Nodes, tasks, number of pods, etc.
  • Monitoring of containers other than the supported container orchestration platforms

Point to note regarding billing

With the use of mackerel-container-agent, for every task or Pod, one host will be registered in Mackerel. Please note that charges will occur if using a paid plan. For more details, refer to FAQ · Calculating the number of hosts.

Supported container orchestration platforms

The following container orchestration platforms are supported with mackerel-container-agent.

  • Amazon Elastic Container Service(ECS)
    • EC2 Launch Type
    • Fargate Launch Type
    • Windows containers not supported
  • Kubernetes

Setup

The setup process for mackerel-container-agent varies for each container orchestration platform.

Please note that the following processes are deprecated for mackerel-container-agent v0.1.0 or later.

Obtaining metrics

The metrics that can be obtained with mackerel-container-agent are as follows. Content may vary depending on the container orchestration platform.

Metric Explanation Metric Name
CPU Usage The CPU usage per container (1 core=100%) container.cpu.<container_name>.usage
CPU Limit The CPU limit per container (1 core=100%)。
For Kubernetes, the value of resources.limits.cpu. If not defined, the number of cores of the host.
For ECS and Fargate, the task CPU. If not defined, the number of CPU cores of the host.
container.cpu.<container_name>.limit
Memory Usage The memory usage per container container.memory.<container_name>.usage
Memory Limit The memory limit per container.
For Kubernetes, the value of resources.limits.memory. If not defined, the amount of memory of the host.
For ECS and Fargate, the memory limit of the container. If not defined, the task memory. If neither container or memory are defined, the amount of memory of the host.
container.memory.<container_name>.limit
Interface Rx The number of bytes received per task / Pod interface.
For ECS(default, bridge network mode), the number of bytes received per container.
interface.<container_name>.rxBytes.delta
Interface Tx The number of bytes sent per task / Pod interface.
For ECS(default, bridge network mode), The number of bytes sent per container.
interface.<container_name>.txBytes.delta

Role metrics

Role graphs display the total value of container metrics that belong to tasks and pods for both CPU and Memory.

Obtaining metadata

mackerel-container-agent retrieves information from each container orchestration platform and registers it as host metadata.

  • ECS, Fargate
    • Cluster name, ARN, task resource limit, container name, DockerID, etc.
  • Kubernetes
    • Pod name, namespace, label, container name, container resource limit, etc.

Agent configuration

Agent configurations are done with environment variables and the configuration file. If not using the plugin, the agent can be used with just environment variable configuration.

Using environment variables

Variable name Explanation
MACKEREL_APIKEY Specifies the API key used by the agent to communicate with the Mackerel service.
MACKEREL_APIBASE Specifies the Mackerel API endpoint(Default: https://api.mackerelio.com/).
MACKEREL_ROLES Sets services and roles for tasks and pods.
MACKEREL_AGENT_CONFIG Sets the agent configuration file. Details for this will be described later.
MACKEREL_AGENT_CONFIG_POLLING_DURATION_MINUTES Specifies time interval of retrieval in minutes for detecting changes in the agent configuration file.
MACKEREL_IGNORE_CONTAINER Sets the name of the container to be excluded from monitoring with regular expressions.
MACKEREL_HOST_STATUS_ON_START When set, the host status changes to the specified value upon startup of the agent. Valid values are "standby", "working", "maintenance", and "poweroff".
HTTP_PROXY(HTTPS_PROXY) Sets an HTTP Proxy that the agent uses to communicate outside of the container. Note that this is a different setting from the http probe proxy (described later).

By default, the configuration file is read once at startup. With MACKEREL_AGENT_CONFIG_POLLING_DURATION_MINUTES configured, the configuration file is periodically retrieved to detect and apply changes.

Using the configuration file

Set the file path of the agent configuration file with the environment variable MACKEREL_AGENT_CONFIG. If MACKEREL_AGENT_CONFIG is not specified, the default setting is used.

Possible paths for MACKEREL_AGENT_CONFIG are as follows.

  • File path: /etc/mackerel/mackerel.yaml
  • HTTP/HTTPS: https://example.com/mackerel/conf/mackerel.yaml
  • Amazon S3: s3://bucket/mackerel/conf/mackerel.yaml

Write the configuration file in YAML format. The following is an example.

apikey: "YOUR_MACKEREL_APIKEY"
roles:
  - "My-Service:app"
  - "Another-Service:db"
ignoreContainer: '\Amackerel-container-agent\z'

Configuration items

Item name Explanation
apikey Specifies the API key used by the agent to communicate with the Mackerel service.
apibase The Mackerel API end point (Default: https://api.mackerelio.com/).
roles Sets services and roles for tasks and pods.
ignoreContainer Sets the name of the container to be excluded from monitoring with regular expressions.
root Specifies the mackerel-container-agent root directory (Default: /var/tmp/mackerel-container-agent)。
plugin.metrics Sets a plugin to get and post arbitrary metrics. Details for this will be described later.
plugin.checks Sets the plugin to execute arbitrary check monitors and post the results. Details for this will be described later.
readinessProbe Sets the Readiness Probe. Details for this will be described later.

Configuration priority

If the same item is defined in the environment variable as the configuration file, the configuration file value is given priority. Please take this into account.

Using plugins

Metric plugins and check plugins are able to be used.

mackerel-container-agent also offers a Docker image that bundles official plugins.

plugins is an image that bundles the plugins in the latest image, and vX.Y.Z-plugins is an image that bundles plugins in the vX.Y.Z image.

The plugins bundled in this image are as follows.

  • mackerel-agent-plugins
    • mackerel-plugin-apache2
    • mackerel-plugin-elasticsearch
    • mackerel-plugin-fluentd
    • mackerel-plugin-gostats
    • mackerel-plugin-haproxy
    • mackerel-plugin-jmx-jolokia
    • mackerel-plugin-memcached
    • mackerel-plugin-mysql
    • mackerel-plugin-nginx
    • mackerel-plugin-php-apc
    • mackerel-plugin-php-fpm
    • mackerel-plugin-php-opcache
    • mackerel-plugin-plack
    • mackerel-plugin-postgres
    • mackerel-plugin-redis
    • mackerel-plugin-sidekiq
    • mackerel-plugin-snmp
    • mackerel-plugin-squid
    • mackerel-plugin-uwsgi-vassal
  • mackerel-plugin-json
  • go-check-plugins
    • check-cert-file
    • check-elasticsearch
    • check-file-age
    • check-file-size
    • check-http
    • check-jmx-jolokia
    • check-log
    • check-memcached
    • check-mysql
    • check-postgresql
    • check-redis
    • check-ssh
    • check-ssl-cert
    • check-tcp

If you would like to use a plugin other than the ones bundled, prepare an image with mackerel/mackerel-container-agent as the base and installed with the desired plugin.

Usable plugin configurations

Usable configurations for mackerel-container-agent are as follows.

Metric plugin configuration items (plugin.metrics)

  • command: A command that the agent regularly executes (required).
  • user: The user to execute commands. If not specified, the user that executed mackerel-container-agent.
  • env: The environment variable to pass to the command.
  • timeoutSeconds: Specifies when a command times out in seconds. The default value is 30 seconds.

Check plugin configuration items (plugin.checks)

  • command: A command that the agent regularly executes (required).
  • user: The user to execute commands. If not specified, the user that executed mackerel-container-agent.
  • env: The environment variable to pass to the command.
  • timeoutSeconds: Specifies when a command times out in seconds. The default value is 30 seconds.
  • memo: Notes can be set for check monitors. The character string specified here can be checked in the alert notification, the alert details screen, or the host details page.

Plugin configuration examples

The following are examples of plugin configurations.

plugin:
  metrics:
    mysql:
      command: mackerel-plugin-mysql

    redis6379:
      command: mackerel-plugin-redis -port=6379 -timeout=5 -metric-key-prefix=redis6379
      timeoutSeconds: 50

    sample:
      command: ruby /usr/local/bin/sample-plugin.rb
      user: "sample-user"
      env:
        FOO: "FOO BAR"
        QUX: 'QUX QUUX'

  checks:
    procs:
      command: "check-procs --pattern=/usr/sbin/sshd --warning-under=1"
      user: "sample-user"
      env:
        FOO: FOO BAR
      timeoutSeconds: 45
      memo: "check procs memo"

Readiness Probe configuration

When the agent starts up, you can check whether the application is running normally. After a successful confirmation, a host is created.

There are three types of Readiness Probes that can be configured with mackerel-container-agent. Only one can be configured at a time.

  • exec probe
    • Executes a command and checks whether it ends normally
  • http probe
    • Sends an HTTP request and checks whether the response is normal
  • tcp probe
    • Check whether a connection with TCP is possible

Shared configuration items (readinessProbe)

  • timeoutSeconds: Specifies when a command or HTTP request times out in seconds. The default value is 1 second.
  • initialDelaySeconds: Specifies the time between starting the agent and when the probe check takes place in seconds. The default value is 0 seconds.
  • periodSeconds: Specifies the interval for the probe check in seconds. The default value is 10 seconds.

exec probe

The exec probe executes the command and judges it as normal when the exit status is 0.

exec probe configuration items (readinessProbe.exec)

  • command: Specifies the command to execute (required)。
  • user: The user to execute the command. If not specified, the user that executed mackerel-container-agent.
  • env: The environment variable to pass to the command.

Configuration example

readinessProbe:
  exec:
    command: cat /tmp/healthy
readinessProbe:
  exec:
    command: cat /tmp/healthy
    user: "sample-user"
    env:
      FOO: "FOO BAR"
  initialDelaySeconds: 10
  timeoutSeconds: 5
  periodSeconds: 3

http probe

The http probe sends an HTTP request and judges it as normal when the status is either of the 200 or 300 series.

http probe configuration items (readinessProbe.http)

  • path: Specifies the path of the request contact (required).
  • scheme: Specifies the URI scheme. The default value is http.
  • method: Specifies the method of the request. The default value is GET.
  • host: Specifies the host of the request contact. The default value is localhost.
  • port: Specifies the port of the request contact. The default value is 80.
  • headers: Specifies the request header.
  • proxy: Specifies the HTTP Proxy URL.

Configuration example

readinessProbe:
  http:
    path: /healthy
    port: 8000
readinessProbe:
  http:
    scheme: http
    method: PUT
    path: /healthy
    headers:
      - name: X-Custom-Header
        value: test
    proxy: "https://proxy.example.com:8080"
  initialDelaySeconds: 10
  timeoutSeconds: 5
  periodSeconds: 10

tcp probe

The tcp probe judges as normal when a TCP connection can be made.

tcp probe configuration items (readinessProbe.tcp)

  • port: Specifies the port of the request contact (required).
  • host: Specifies the host of the request contact.

Configuration example

readinessProbe:
  tcp:
    port: 53
readinessProbe:
  tcp:
    port: 443
    host: example.com
  initialDelaySeconds: 10
  timeoutSeconds: 5
  periodSeconds: 10

Monitoring

The following metric monitoring is used to monitor containers. If alerts occur for containers for which monitoring is unnecessary, please exclude them with the environment variable MACKEREL_IGNORE_CONTAINER or ignoreContainer in the configuration file.

  • CPU: Container CPU %
    • Monitors the maximum CPU usage rate (container.cpu.<container_name>.usage / container.cpu.<container_name>.limit) of each container.
  • Memory: Container Memory %
    • Monitors the maximum Memory usage rate (container.memory.<container_name>.usage / container.memory.<container_name>.limit) of each container.
  • interface: interface.<container_name>.rxBytes.delta, interface.<container_name>.txBytes.delta
    • Monitors the network interface transmission quantity.